The Cloudflare Threat Score is a key item behind the Security Level functionality in the Cloudflare dashboard.
Threat Score as configured by Security Level is based on:
High - for scores greater than 0
Medium - for scores greater than 14
Low - for scores greater than 24
Essentially off - for scores greater than 49
Enabling a high threat score for sensitive areas, like comment form pages or login forms, can add an effective level of protection. Integrating Threat Score with Firewall Rules is advantageous because you can specify a Captcha vs. a JS Challenge, or even a block. You can also exclude IP addresses using and not logic.